Heat 1 tablespoon of the oil in a large heavy-bottomed soup pot or Dutch oven over high heat. Add turkey and cook, breaking up with a wooden spoon and stirring occasionally, until completely browned. Transfer turkey and any juices to a bowl and set aside.
Return pot to medium-high heat and add remaining 1 tablespoon oil. Add onion, garlic, and salt and cook, stirring often, for 6 to 10 minutes, until onion is soft and browned.
Add chili powder, cumin, paprika, and chipotle and cook, stirring, for 30 to 90 seconds, until spices are fragrant and starting to toast and darken slightly.
Add vinegar and stir for 30 seconds to 1 minute, until liquid is evaporated.
Add water and bring to a simmer, scraping up any browned bits and spices from the bottom of the pot.
Add tomatoes, beans, syrup, and browned turkey, stirring to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a simmer. Reduce heat to medium-low to maintain a gentle simmer and cook, stirring occasionally, for 10 to 14 minutes, until turkey and onions are tender.
Serve topped with avocado, cilantro, and pepitas.