Bring a large pot of water to a boil.
Using a spiralizer, cut the sweet potato into thick noodles. (Alternatively, use a knife to cut the sweet potato into 1/4-inch matchsticks.) Boil the sweet potato noodles for 3 minutes. Drain.
Meanwhile, toss the chicken in the flour. Season with salt and pepper. Heat the oil in a large skillet set over medium-high heat. Add the chicken and cook until browned, about 5 minutes. Add the onion and cook until softened, about 5 minutes. Add the beans, corn, and enchilada sauce. Bring to a simmer and let cook until the chicken is cooked through.
Stir in the sweet potato noodles. Top with cilantro, cheese, and lime juice.